Tenses

5/11/2018 5:58:23 PM
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Tenses

5/11/2018 6:06:17 PM
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Re: Tenses

 

Present Simple
I do, I do do
Present Continuous
I am doing
Present Perfect
I have done
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been doing
Past Simple
I did, I did do
Past Continuous
I was doing
Past Perfect
I had done
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been doing
Future Simple
I will do
Future Continuous
I will be doing
Future Perfect
I will have done
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been doing

5/12/2018 5:44:18 AM
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Re: Tenses

tense Affirmative/Negative/Question Use Signal Words
Simple Present A: He speaks.
N: He does not speak.
Q: Does he speak?
  • action in the present taking place regularly, never or several times
  • facts
  • actions taking place one after another
  • action set by a timetable or schedule
always, every …, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually
if sentences type I (If I talk, …)
Present Progressive A: He is speaking.
N: He is not speaking.
Q: Is he speaking?
  • action taking place in the moment of speaking
  • action taking place only for a limited period of time
  • action arranged for the future
at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now
Simple Past A: He spoke.
N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak?
  • action in the past taking place once, never or several times
  • actions taking place one after another
  • action taking place in the middle of another action
yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
if sentence type II (If I talked, …)
Past Progressive A: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking.
Q: Was he speaking?
  • action going on at a certain time in the past
  • actions taking place at the same time
  • action in the past that is interrupted by another action
while, as long as
Present Perfect Simple A: He has spoken.
N: He has not spoken.
Q: Has he spoken?
  • putting emphasis on the result
  • action that is still going on
  • action that stopped recently
  • finished action that has an influence on the present
  • action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking
already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now
Present Perfect Progressive A: He has been speaking.
N: He has not been speaking.
Q: Has he been speaking?
  • putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result)
  • action that recently stopped or is still going on
  • finished action that influenced the present
all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week
Past Perfect Simple A: He had spoken.
N: He had not spoken.
Q: Had he spoken?
  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive
  • putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration)
already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day
if sentence type III (If I had talked, …)
Past Perfect Progressive A: He had been speaking.
N: He had not been speaking.
Q: Had he been speaking?
  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple
  • putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action
for, since, the whole day, all day
Future I Simple A: He will speak.
N: He will not speak. 
Q: Will he speak?
  • action in the future that cannot be influenced
  • spontaneous decision
  • assumption with regard to the future
in a year, next …, tomorrow
If-Satz Typ I (If you ask her, she will helpyou.)
assumption: I think, probably, perhaps
Future I Simple

(going to)

A: He is going to speak.
N: He is not going to speak.
Q: Is he going to speak?
  • decision made for the future
  • conclusion with regard to the future
in one year, next week, tomorrow
Future I Progressive A: He will be speaking.
N: He will not be speaking.
Q: Will he be speaking?
  • action that is going on at a certain time in the future
  • action that is sure to happen in the near future
in one year, next week, tomorrow
Future II Simple A: He will have spoken.
N: He will not have spoken.
Q: Will he have spoken?
  • action that will be finished at a certain time in the future
by Monday, in a week
Future II Progressive A: He will have been speaking.
N: He will not have been speaking.
Q: Will he have been speaking?
  • action taking place before a certain time in the future
  • putting emphasis on the course of an action
for …, the last couple of hours, all day long
Conditional I Simple A: He would speak.
N: He would not speak.
Q: Would he speak?
  • action that might take place
if sentences type II
(If I were you, I would go home.)
Conditional I Progressive A: He would be speaking.
N: He would not be speaking.
Q: Would he be speaking?
  • action that might take place
  • putting emphasis on thecourse / duration of the action
 
Conditional II Simple A: He would have spoken.
N: He would not have spoken.
Q: Would he have spoken?
  • action that might have taken place in the past
if sentences type III
(If I had seen that, I would have helped.)
Conditional II Progressive A: He would have been speaking.
N: He would not have been speaking.
Q: Would he have been speaking?
  • action that might have taken place in the past
  • puts emphasis on the course/ duration of the action
 
5/12/2018 3:21:42 PM
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Re: Tenses

The FUTURE TENSE indicates that an action is in the future relative to the speaker or writer. There are no inflected forms for the future in English (nothing like those -ed or -s endings in the other tenses). Instead, the future tense employs the helping verbs willor shall with the base form of the verb:

  • She will leave soon.
  • We shall overcome.

The future is also formed with the use of a form of "go" plus the infinitive of the verb:

  • He is going to faint.

English can even use the present to suggest the future tense:

  • am leaving later today."

The FUTURE PROGRESSIVE TENSE indicates continuing action, something that will be happening, going on, at some point in the future. This tense is formed with the modal "will" plus "be," plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending):

"I will be running in next year's Boston Marathon. Our campaign plans suggest that the President will be winning the southern vote by November. "

The FUTURE PERFECT TENSE indicates that an action will have been completed (finished or "perfected") at some point in the future. This tense is formed with "will" plus "have" plus the past participle of the verb (which can be either regular or irregular in form): "I will have spent all my money by this time next year. I will have run successfully in three marathons if I can finish this one."

The FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE indicates a continuous action that will be completed at some point in the future. This tense is formed with the modal "WILL" plus the modal "HAVE" plus "BEEN" plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending): "Next Thursday, I will have been working on this project for three years."

5/12/2018 3:37:11 PM
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Re: Tenses

future progressive vs future perfect progressive

 

  1. He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard.
     
  2. He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard.

What is the difference?

The first one implies that he is tired while (at the same time that) he is exercising. The second one implies that he is tired after he has finished exercising.

5/19/2018 7:39:48 AM
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Re: Tenses

Past Continuous Tense with  Simple Past Tense

 

You can often see  continuous tense with the simple past tense. Using  the past continuous tense to express a long action. And we use the simple past tense to express a short action that happens in the middle of the long action. We can join the two ideas with when or while.
 

when + short action (simple past tense) : the telephone rang
while + long action (past continuous tense): I was sleeping

While they were waiting for the train, they saw Sarah.
When John called I was sleeping.

While Michel was cooking the supper, his parents were watching TV.

5/25/2018 9:07:57 PM
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Present Simple

1. Usual, regular action:

  • I usually go fishing at weekends. I don’t go fishing at weekends. Do I go fishing at weekends?
  • You always know the answer. You don’t always know the answer. Do you always know the answer?
  • She never puts milk in her tea. She doesn’t put milk in her tea. Does she ever put milk in her tea?
  • My father plays the violin. My father doesn’t play the violin. Does your father play the violin?
  • We sometimes go to the cinema on Friday. We don’t go to the cinema on Friday. Do we go to the cinema on Fridays?
  • They never walk in the wood. They don’t walk in the wood. Do they walk in the wood?

2. General existence; stating a fact:

  • An ostrich has two legs. A rabbit doesn’t have two legs. How many legs does a spider have?
  • The earth goes round the sun. The sun doesn’t go round the earth. Does the moon go round the earth?
  • Water is liquid at room temperature. Gold isn’t liquid at room temperature. Isgold solid at room temperature?

3. Dramatic narrative (theatre, sports, etc. events):

  • Johnson takes the ball, he bounces it to the floor, then he throws and scorestwo points.

4. Timetables

  • The train leaves at half past four. The train doesn’t leave at five. What time does the train leave?
  • The course starts on 1 July. The course doesn’t start in June. When does the course start?
5/25/2018 9:11:03 PM
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Present Progressive

1. Action happening now:

  • I’m watching a film on TV now. I‘m not watching a film. Am I watching a film?
  • Watch out, a car’s coming. It isn’t not coming. Is it coming?
  • The boys are sleeping upstairs. They boys aren’t sleeping upstairs. Are the boys sleeping upstairs?

2. Action happening about this time, but not necessarily now:

  • He‘s studying Spanish and German. He‘s not studying French. What languages is he studying?
  • They‘re going to a business course. They aren’t going to a cooking course. What course are they going to?
  • You‘re visiting museums while you’re here. You‘re not visiting factories.  Areyou visiting museums in our city?

3. Definite arrangement in the near future:

  • I‘m travelling to Paris tomorrow. I‘m not travelling to Paris tomorrow. Am I travelling to Paris tomorrow?
  • My son is taking his girlfriend to dinner tonight. My son isn’t taking his girlfriend to dinner tonight. Is he taking his girlfriend to dinner tonight?
  • You‘re going to Italy on holiday this year, aren’t you? You aren’t going to Greece. Where are you going on holiday this year?
5/25/2018 9:15:26 PM
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Past Simple

Actions, events in the past:

  • had lunch with Mrs Robinson yesterday. I didn’t have lunch with Mrs Robinson yesterday. Did I have lunch with Mrs Robinson yesterday?
  • Mother went to work on Tuesday. Mother didn’t go to work on Tuesday. DidMother go to work on Tuesday?
  • You did the shopping this morning. You didn’t do the shopping this morning. Where did you do the shopping this morning?
  • She travelled to Spain last year. She didn’t travel anywhere last year. Where did she travel last year?
5/25/2018 9:19:56 PM
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Past Progressive

Action in progress in the past:

  • was working in the garden when my sister arrived. I wasn’t working in the garden when my sister arrived. Was I working in the garden when my sister arrived?
  • We were watching a film at ten last night. We weren’t watching a film at ten last night. Were we watching film at ten last night?
  • She was playing with the kids from eight to nine. She wasn’t playing with the kids from eight to nine. Who was she playing with?
5/25/2018 9:30:38 PM
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Present Perfect Simple

1. Action with a result:

  • Sorry, I‘ve parked at the wrong place. I haven’t parked at the wrong place. Have I parked at the wrong place?
  • You‘ve (already) printed the letters. You haven’t printed the letters (yet). Have you printed the letters (yet)?
  • We‘ve (already) done the rooms. We haven’t done the rooms yet. Have we done the rooms (yet)?
  • He has already repaired the lawn-mower. He hasn’t repaired the lawn-mower yet. Has he repaired the lawn-mower yet?

2. Action in incomplete time:

  • Our friends have visited us four times this summer. Our friends haven’t visited us this summer. How many times have our friends visited us this summer?
  • I‘ve been to the cinema a lot lately. I haven’t been to the cinema lately. HaveI been to the cinema lately?
  • You‘ve been on holiday this year. You haven’t been on holiday this year. Haveyou been on holiday this year?

3. Action in the past without saying when(action relating to time period in the past):

  • Jane has already been to Italy. Jane has never been to Italy. Has Jane ever been to Italy?
  • You have already swum in this lake. You haven’t swum in this lake yet. Haveyou ever swum in this lake?
  • You‘ve been to the hairdresser’s. You haven’t been to the hairdresser’s. Where have you been?

4. Action beginning in the past and still continuing:

  • The Simpsons have lived here for eight years. The Simpsons haven’t livedhere for long. How long have the Simpsons lived here?
  • He has driven a car since 2002. He hasn’t driven a car since 2002. Has he driven a car since 2002?
  • You‘ve worked here for two years. You haven’t worked here for two years. How long have you worked here?