Active and Passive

5/13/2018 4:23:53 PM
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Active and Passive

Active and Passive forms

We listed active and passive forms in the following table. We used the phrase I drive and put this phrase into the most common tenses.

Active (Simple Forms)
Simple Present I drive
Simple Past I drove
Present Perfect I have driven
Past Perfect I had driven
will-future I will drive
Future Perfect I will have driven
Conditional I would drive
Conditional Perefct I would have driven
Active (Progressive/Continuous Forms)
Present Progressive I am driving
Past Progressive I was driving
Present Perfect Progressive I have been driving
Past Perfect Progressive I had been driving
will-future Progressive I will be driving
Future Perfect Progressive I will have been driving
Conditional Progressive I would be driving
Conditional Perfect Progressive I would have been driving
Passive (Simple Forms)
Simple Present I am driven
Simple Past I was driven
Present Perfect I have been driven
Past Perfect I had been driven
will-future I will be driven
Future Perfect I will have been driven
Conditional I would be driven
Conditional Perfect I would have been driven
Passive (Progressive/Continuous Forms)
Present Progressive I am being driven
Past Progressive I was being driven
Present Perfect Progressive* I have been being driven
Past Perfect Progressive* I had been being driven
will-future Progressive* I will be being driven
Future Perfect Progressive* I will have been being driven
Conditional Progressive* I would be being driven
Conditional Perfect Progressive* I would have been being driven

* Tenses which are rarely used in everyday conversation.

5/13/2018 5:33:42 PM
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Re: Active and Passive

Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have "active forms" and "passive forms." You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English.

Active Form

In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.

[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]

Examples:

Passive Form

In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.

[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]

Examples:

5/13/2018 5:45:24 PM
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Re: Active and Passive

Active / Passive Overview

Tense Active Passive
Simple Present

Once a week, Tom cleans the house.

Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.

Present Continuous

Right now, Sarah is writing the letter.

Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.

Simple Past

Sam repaired the car.

The car was repaired by Sam.

Past Continuous

The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.

The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.

Present Perfect

Many tourists have visited that castle.

That castle has been visited by many tourists.

Present Perfect Continuous

Recently, John has been doing the work.

Recently, the work has been being done by John.

Past Perfect

George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license.

Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license.

Past Perfect Continuous

Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.

The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.

Simple Future
will

Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM.

The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.

Simple Future
be going to

Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.

A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.

Future Continuous
will

At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes.

At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washedby John.

Future Continuous
be going to

At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.

At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.

Future Perfect
will

They will have completed the project before the deadline.

The project will have been completed before the deadline.

Future Perfect
be going to

They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.

The project is going to have been completedbefore the deadline.

Future Perfect Continuous
will

The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.

The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.

Future Perfect Continuous
be going to

The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.

The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.

Used to

Jerry used to pay the bills.

The bills used to be paid by Jerry.

Would Always

My mother would always make the pies.

The pies would always be made by my mother.

Future in the Past
Would

I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM.

I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.

Future in the Past
Was Going to

I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.

I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be madeby Sally tonight.

5/29/2018 12:03:23 PM
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Re: Active and Passive

Tips on using Voice:

 

Tip #1: Let

If the given sentence in the active voice is in the imperative form, to get the passive voice use ‘Let’. 

Formation of Passive Voice = Let + Object + be + Past Participle

Examples:

Active: Help me.

Passive: Let me be helped.

Active: Open the door.

Passive: Let the door be opened.

 

Tip #2: Helping verbs like am, is, are, was, were, will, have, should, could, will

If the question in the Active Voice begins with a Helping verb the Passive voice must also begin with a suitable helping verb.

Active: Are you writing a letter?

Passive: Is a letter being written by you?

Active: Will you write a letter?

Passive: Will a letter be written by you?

What, When, Who, Why, How:

If the question begins with ‘Wh’ or How’ form (what, when, how, etc.) the Passive Voice must begin with the same. Only ‘who’ gets replaced by ‘By whom’.

Active: Why did you break the box?

Passive: Why was the box broken by you?

Active: Who broke the window?

Passive: By whom was the window broken?

 

Tip #3: Gerund, Infinitive

When used in passive form, gerund and Infinitive are formed differently.

Infinitive: passive is formed as ‘to be + past participle’

Active: I want to shoot the tiger.

Passive: I want the tiger to be shot.

Gerund: passive is formed as ‘being + past participle’

Active: I remember my father taking me to the theatre.

Passive: I remember being taken to the theatre by my father.

 

Tip #4: Direct and Indirect Object

If a sentence contains two objects namely Indirect Object and Direct Object in the Active Voice, two forms of Passive Voice can be formed.

Active: She brought me a cup of coffee.

Passive: (I) was brought a cup of coffee by her.

Passive: (II) A cup of coffee was brought to me by her.

Object Complement: When made passive, these objects complements become subject complements; they come after the verb.

Active: They elected him their leader.

Passive: He was elected their leader.

 

Tip #5: Cases where ‘by’ is not used

With: use with in place of ‘by’ to talk about an instrument used by the agent/subject.

Active: Somebody hit the dog with a stick.

Passive: (I) The dog was hit by with a stick.

Passive: (II) The dog was hit by boy.

Impersonal Passive: In scientific / technical / business writing, the emphasis is usually on the action or process. So the ‘by’ phrase is generally omitted.

Active: One finds mosquitoes everywhere.

Passive: Mosquitoes are found everywhere.

5/29/2018 9:23:22 PM
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Re: Active and Passive

Passive verb forms

 Here is a table showing the passive forms for most English verbs:

Tense Passive  Example
present simple am/are/is + past participle He is taken to school by his dad.
present (progressive)continuous am/are/is being + past participle He is being bullied.
present perfect have/has been + past participle Have you been interviewed for many jobs?
past simple was/were + past participle We were told not to touch anything.
past continuous (progressive)        was/were being + past participle Their computers were being attacked by international hackers.
past perfect had been + past participle His father had been brought up in India.
future will be + past participle Arrangements will be made to move them to other locations.
future perfect will have been + past participle All the goodies will have been shipped by tomorrow.

 

5/30/2018 5:23:41 AM
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Re: Active and Passive

FUNCTIONS OF THE PASSIVE VOICE

The passive voice is used to show interest in the person or object that experiences an action rather than the person or object that performs the action. In other words, the most important thing or person becomes the subject of the sentence.

EXAMPLES

 

  • The tower was built in 1654. (= we are interested in the tower, not in who built it.)
  • The house is being repaired. (= we are interested in the house, not in the people who are doing the repairs.)

Sometimes we use the passive voice because we don't know or do not want to express who performed the action.

EXAMPLES
  • I noticed that a door had been left open.
  • Every year thousands of people are killed on our roads.
  • All the candies have been eaten.
  • My bicycle has been stolen!

 

 

FORMING THE PASSIVE VOICE

The passive voice in English is composed of two elements:
the appropriate form of the verb 'to be' + past participle

Affirmative Negative Interrogative Negative Interrogative
The tower was built in 1899. The tower wasn't built in 1899. Was the tower built in 1899? Wasn't the tower built in 1899?
These towers were built in 1899. These towers weren't built in 1899. Were these towers built in 1899? Weren't these towers built in 1899?