CONDITIONAL

 







        Conditional Types  
   
   
   
         











useful informationon


The Zero Conditional

We can make a zero conditional sentence with two present simple verbs (one in the 'if clause' and one in the 'main clause'):

  • If + present simple, .... present simple.
This conditional is used when the result will always happen. So, if water reaches 100 degrees, it always boils. It's a fact. I'm talking in general, not about one particular situation. The result of the 'if clause' is always the main clause.

The 'if' in this conditional can usually be replaced by 'when' without changing the meaning.

For example: If water reaches 100 degrees, it boils. (It is always true, there can't be a different result sometimes). If I eat peanuts, I am sick. (This is true only for me, maybe, not for everyone, but it's still true that I'm sick every time I eat peanuts)

Here are some more examples:

  • If people eat too much, they get fat.
  • If you touch a fire, you get burned.
  • People die if they don't eat.
  • You get water if you mix hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Snakes bite if they are scared
  • If babies are hungry, they cry


The First Conditional

The first conditional has the present simple after 'if', then the future simple in the other clause:

  • if + present simple, ... will + infinitive

It's used to talk about things which might happen in the future. Of course, we can't know what will happen in the future, but this describes possible things, which could easily come true.

  • If it rains, I won't go to the park.
  • If I study today, I'll go to the party tonight.
  • If I have enough money, I'll buy some new shoes.
  • She'll be late if the train is delayed.
  • She'll miss the bus if she doesn't leave soon.
  • If I see her, I'll tell her.

The Second Conditional

The second conditional uses the past simple after if, then 'would' and the infinitive:

  • if + past simple, ...would + infinitive

(We can use 'were' instead of 'was' with 'I' and 'he/she/it'. This is mostly done in formal writing).

It has two uses.

First, we can use it to talk about things in the future that are probably not going to be true. Maybe I'm imagining some dream for example.

  • If I won the lottery, I would buy a big house.(I probably won't win the lottery)
  • If I met the Queen of England, I would say hello.
  • She would travel all over the world if she were rich.
  • She would pass the exam if she ever studied.(She never studies, so this won't happen)

Second, we can use it to talk about something in the present which is impossible, because it's not true. Is that clear? Have a look at the examples:

  • If I had his number, I would call him. (I don't have his number now, so it's impossible for me to call him).
  • If I were you, I wouldn't go out with that man.

How is this different from the first conditional?

This kind of conditional sentence is different from the first conditional because this is a lot more unlikely.

For example (second conditional): If I had enough money I would buy a house with twenty bedrooms and a swimming pool (I'm probably not going to have this much money, it's just a dream, not very real)

But (first conditional): If I have enough money, I'll buy some new shoes (It's much more likely that I'll have enough money to buy some shoes)


Remember!

1. The conditional construction does not normally use will or would in if-clauses. EXCEPTION: If will or would express willingness, as in requests, they can be used in if-clauses.
e.g. If you will come this way, the manager will see you now.
I would be grateful if you would give me a little help.
(= ± please, come this way; please, give me...)
2. For the second conditional, were replaces was:
If I were a rich man...
3. After if, we can either use "some(-one, -where...)" or "any(-one, -where...).
If I have some spare time next weekend....or : 
If I have any spare time...
4. Instead of if not, we can use unless.
e.g. I'll be back tomorrow unless there is a plane strike.
He'll accept the job unless the salary is too low.
5.There is a "mixed type" as well, for the present results of an unreal condition in the past:
If + Past Perfect - would + inf.
If you had warned me [then], I would not be in prison [now].